Chinese alphabet does not have any letters, it has components that are combined to form Chinese characters.
A Chinese character consists of two component parts, as the radical and phonetic. The radical part provides of the meaning of the character, while the phonetic part provides a clue as to the pronunciation of the character.
There are more than 100,000 different Chinese characters,impossible to count them all precisely. The number of useful characters, is "only" between 3,000 and 6,000.
There are no letters and vowels in the Chinese alphabet, because there is no Chinese alphabet.
Chinese is written in ideograms. Each character has a meaning and a pronunciation.
Chinese is a pictorial language. Its "alphabet" is a series of pictographic symbols that have specific meanings for words. These pictures tell you a little bit about the pronunciation, but not everything.
For each word, you need to memorize multiple things.
All 26 letters of the alphabet. In the chinese alphabet, small letters are written like capital letters, and vice versa.