The Sikh Gurus

The Sikh Gurus

1. Guru Nanak Dev

Guru Nanak Dev, first of the 10 gurus, founded the Sikh faith, introducing the concept of one God.
Son of: Kalyan Das ji (Mehta Kalu ji), and Mata Tripta ji. Brother of: Bibi Nanaki

Married to: Sulakhani ji.
Father to: sons, Siri Chand and Lakhmi Das.

  • Birthplace: Nankana Sahib (Pakistan), observed October 20, 1469
  • Became Guru: From birth - formally, February 20, 1507
  • Place of Death: Kartarpur, September 7, 1539
  • Age: 70

2. Guru Angad Dev

Guru Angad Dev, second of the 10 gurus, compiled the writings of Nanak Dev, and introduced the Gurmukhi script.

Son of: Pheru Mall ji and Mata Daya Kaur (Sabhrai) ji.
Married to: Mata Khivi ji.
Father to: sons, Dasu, Datu, and daughters, Amro and Anokhi.

  • Birthplace: Harike, March 31, 1504
  • Became Guru: Kartarpur, September 7, 1539
  • Place of Death: Khadur, March 29, 1552
  • Age: 48

3. Guru Amar Das

Guru Amar Das, third of the 10 gurus, disavowed caste with the institution of langar, pangat and sangat.

Son of: Tej Bhan ji and Mata Lakhmi ji.
Married to: Mansa Devi.
Father to: sons, Mohan, Mohri, and daughters, Dani and Bhani.

  • Birthplace: Basarke (Amritsar) May 5, 1479
  • Became Guru: Khadur, March 26, 1552
  • Place of Death: Goindwal, September 1, 1574
  • Age: 95

4. Guru Raam Das

Guru Raam Das, fourth of the 10 gurus, began the excavation of the sarovar in Amritsar.

Son of: Hari Das ji Sodhi and Mata Daya Kaur ji.
Married to: Bibi Bhani ji.
Father to: sons, Prithi Chand, Maha Dev and Arjun Dev.

  • Birthplace: Chuna Mandi (Lahore, Pakistan) September 24, 1534
  • Became Guru: Goindwal, September 1, 1574
  • Place of Death: Goindwal, September 1, 1581
  • Age: 47

5. Guru Arjun Dev (Arjan Dev)

Guru Arjun (Arjan) Dev, fifth of the 10 gurus, erected the Golden Temple (Harmandir Sahib) in Amritsar, compiled and contributed to Adi Granth, 1604.

Son of: Guru Raam das and Ji Mata Bhani ji.
Married to: Raam Devi (issueless), Ganga ji.
Father to: one son, Har Govind.

  • Birthplace: Goindwal, April 14, 1563
  • Became Guru: Goindwal, September 1, 1581
  • Place of Death: Lahore, May, 30 1606
  • Martyred age: 43

6. Guru Har Govind (Har Gobind)

Guru Har Govind (Hargobind), sixth of the 10 gurus, constructed the Akal Takhat. He raised an army and wore two swords symbolizing secular and spiritual authority. The Mughal emperor Jahangir imprisoned the guru who negotiated release for whomever could hold on to his robe.

Son of: Guru Arjun and Mata Ganga.
Married to: Damodri ji, Nankee ji and Maha Devi ji.
Father to: Sons, Gur Ditta, Ani Rai, Suraj Mal, Atal Rai, Teg Mall (Teg Bahadur), and daughter, Bibi Veero.

  • Birthplace: Guru ki Wadali (Amritsar), June 19, 1595
  • Became Guru: Amritsar, May 25, inaugurated June 10 - 11 or 25, 1606
  • Place of Death: Kiratpur, February 28, or March 3, 1644
  • Age: 49

7. Guru Har Rai

Guru Har Rai, seventh of the 10 gurus, propagated the Sikh faith, maintained a cavalry of 20,000 as his personal guard, and established both a hospital and zoo.

Son of: Baba Gurditta ji and Mata Nihal Kaur.
Married to: Sulakhni ji (Kishan Kaur) and Daughters of Daya Ram.
Father to: sons, Ram Rai and Har Krishan, and daughter Sarup Kaur.

  • Birthplace: Kiratpur (Hoshiarpur), January 16, or February 26, 1630
  • Became Guru: Kiratpur, March 3, or 8, 1644
  • Place of Death: Kiratpur, May 30, or October 6, 1661
  • Age: 31

8. Guru Har Krishan (Har Kishan)

Guru Har Krishan, eighth of the 10 gurus, became guru at the age of five, and is known for his wisdom and compassion.

Son of:Guru Har Rai and Mata Kishan (aka Krishan or Sulakhni) Kaur.

  • Birthplace: Kiratpur, July 7, 1656
  • Became Guru: Kiratpur, June 10, July 7, or October 6 - 7, 1661
  • Place of Death: Delhi, March 30, 1664
  • Age: 8

9. Guru Teg Bahadar (Tegh Bahadur)

Guru Teg Bahadar, ninth of the 10 gurus, reluctant to leave meditation and come forward as guru, ultimately sacrificed his life to protect Hindu Pandits from forced conversion to Islam.

Son of:Guru Har Govind and Mata Nankee ji.
Married to: Gujri ji.
Father to: one son, Gobind Singh.

  • Birthplace: Amritsar, April 1, 1621
  • Became Guru: Baba Bakala, August 11, 1664
  • Place of Death: Delhi, November 11, 1675
  • Age: 54

10. Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh, tenth of the 10 gurus, created the order of Khalsa. Sacrificed father, mother, sons and his own life to protect Sikhs from forced conversion to Islam. Completed the Granth bestowing upon it title of everlasting Guru.

Son of:Teg Bahadar and Mata Gujri ji.
Married to: Jito ji (Ajit Kaur), Sundri, and Mata Sahib Kaur.
Father to: sons, Ajit Singh, Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh.

  • Birthplace: Patna (Bihar, India) December 22, 1666
  • Became Guru: Anandpur, November 11, 1675
  • Creation of Khalsa: April 14, 1699
  • Place of Death: Nanded, October 7, 1708
  • Age: 42

11. Guru Granth Sahib

Siri Guru Granth Sahib, Sikhism's holy scripture is last and everlasting Guru of the Sikhs. Poetic compositions compiled by Guru Arjun Dev known as Adi Granth or first draft. Holy manuscript confiscated by Dhir Mal. Bir, Final draft of Granth dictated from memory By Guru Gobind Singh.
  • First Installation: Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar, India, September 1, 1604. Adi Granth installed by Fifth Guru Ajrun Dev.
  • Inauguration as Guru: Nanded, India, October 7, 1708. Siri Guru Granth Sahib, appointed by Tenth Guru Gobind Singh as eternal Guru of the Sikhs.